Added: Jamilee Mcnabb - Date: 18.04.2022 15:19 - Views: 15999 - Clicks: 8190
As a result of falling age-specific mortality, life expectancy rose dramatically in the United States over the past century. Final data for the most recent available show that life expectancy at birth for the total population has reached an all-time American high level, Record-high life expectancies were found for white females Life expectancy gaps between males and females and between whites and blacks persisted. In combination with decreasing fertility, the life expectancy gains have led to a rapid aging of the American population, as reflected by an increasing proportion of persons aged 65 and older.
This report documents the improvements in longevity that have occurred, analyzing both the underlying factors that contributed to mortality reductions and the continuing longevity differentials by sex and race. In addition, it considers whether life expectancy will continue to increase in future years. Detailed statistics on life expectancy are provided. A brief comparison with other countries is also provided. While this report focuses on a description of the demographic context of life expectancy change in the United States, these trends have implications for a wide range of social and economic programs and issues that are likely to be considered by Congress.
This report considers population longevity in the United States, as measured by life expectancy. For instance, based on recently released final data, life expectancy at birth in was Life expectancy is also routinely calculated for other ages. Life expectancy at age 60, for instance, refers to the additional of years that a person who has already attained age 60 will live beyond age Life expectancy at age 60 in the year was While this report concentrates on trends and differentials in life expectancy at birthAppendix B Table B -2 provides estimates of life expectancy at selected additional ages in the most recent final data available.
Measures of life expectancy are published in official life tables, which are based on age-specific death rates. The most recently released final data on deaths and mortality are for calendar year ; 6 preliminary estimates are often released by NCHS but are generally not referred to in this report. The concept of life expectancywhich considers the average experience for a population, is distinct from the concept of life spanwhich considers the upper limit of human life that could be reached by an individual.
According to the U. Census Bureau, International Data Base, 7 the highest attained life expectancy to date for a national population was that of Andorra inwhen life expectancy was The oldest authenticated female life span thus far recorded was for J. Calment of France, who died at age years, days, and, for a man, C. Mortensen a Danish immigrant to the U. Life spans are not considered further in this report. This report documents the improvements in life expectancy that have occurred, analyzing both the underlying factors that contributed to mortality reductions as well as the continuing longevity differentials by sex and race.
While this report focuses on describing the demographic context of longevity change in the United States, these trends have implications for a wide range of social and economic issues that are likely to be considered by Congress.
For instance, one consequence of lengthening life expectancies is that the older population's needs for care—assistance with daily tasks to allow continued community-living for high-functioning seniors, institutions for those with more severe disabilities or cognitive impairments, training of a specialized work force in geriatric care—are likely to increase, particularly for the oldest-old.
There are also questions with respect to ensuring basic income support, medical care, and housing for the older population. At the same time, there is the recognition that government programs, such as Social Security and Medicare, will face financial pressures to meet the increasing needs. What program changes are required to ensure the continued viability of such programs as the of beneficiaries increases? What will be the federal government's role in an environment of competing demands for limited resources?
As seen in Table 1 and Appendix B Table B -1life expectancy at birth increased dramatically over the past century in the United States—from Notes: Later year estimates are more reliable than those of the early 20 th century. States were only admitted as qualification standards were met. Statistics prior to are based on data from the DRA states which increased in over time. Alaska and Hawaii are first included in figures. Also note that data for years are not reported in this data source.
Gains in longevity were fastest in the first half of the 20 th century. These advances were largely attributed to "an enormous scientific breakthrough—the germ theory of disease" which led to the eradication and control of numerous infectious and parasitic diseases, especially among infants and children. Interventions included boiling bottles and milk, washing hands, protecting food from flies, isolating sick children, ventilating rooms, and improving water supply and sewage disposal.
Since mid-century, advances in life expectancy have largely been attributable to improvements in the prevention and control of the chronic diseases of adulthood. In particular, death rates from two of the three major causes of death in —diseases of the heart i. The CDC 13 attributes the declines in diseases of the heart and cerebrovascular diseases to a combination of. Beyond medical interventions, public health measures, and individual behaviors, a of additional factors are known to be associated with mortality decline. They are briefly mentioned here, but it is beyond the scope of this report to discuss them in detail or to disentangle them from the factors already described:.
Life expectancy in the United States, for both men and women, is ificantly higher than the global average but is only slightly higher than the average for more developed countries 15 see Table 3. Estimates are provided for a non-comprehensive list of selected counties in Table 3.
The United States was ranked 48 th among countries and territories for both sexes. Source: CRS compilation based on data from the U. The long-range projections needed for this assessment depend critically on assumptions for the future course of longevity. According to Steven Goss, chief actuary of the Social Security Administration SSAtheir future mortality assumptions are based on the recorded average annual mortality decline for the total U.
This rate of improvement is more optimistic—about twice as large—as experienced during the last 18 years of the 20 th century. Goss further suggested that "matching the accomplishments of the past century will not be easy. AIDS, SARS, 17 and antibiotic resistant microbes, along with increasing obesity 18 and declining levels of exercise, remind us that mortality improvements will not be automatic.
Gains from replacement organs and genetic engineering will be expensive, and may be difficult to provide for the population as a whole. A benefit of the statistical methods that have emerged to extrapolate historical mortality trends to the future is that they have worked well and are relatively simple and efficient. Canada's approach assumes that economic productivity is the overall driving factor for sustained longevity improvements, and projects a relationship between future mortality decline and future real growth in employment earnings.
An assumption is also made that there will be a gradual slowing of rates of improvement after the first 10 years. Notes : Interpretation of life expectancy at age 65, the average of additional years that a person will live, assuming that he or she has already attained age For example, a year-old woman in the year will live, on average, an additional Table refers to SSA's intermediate-range period life expectancies.
Future mortality and survival are, however, difficult to predict and specialists disagree on not only the level but also the direction of future trends. Vaupel further suggests that it is unrealistic for SSA to assume that the United States will be unable to match the level of life expectancy in half-a-century that is already attained in other countries today. A of articles suggested that current models may be too pessimistic in their assumptions about mortality and survival probabilities i.
Also, useful analyses of the contributions of smoking behavior to mortality trends 28 in the United States suggests that slow female gains in life expectancy over the past few decades may be temporary, and that the pace may pick up fairly soon.
Technological advances also have the potential to expand life. The National Institute on Aging supports extensive analyses of genetic contributions to longevity in diverse species, as well as on the diseases and conditions that are responsible for premature death. Life expectancy worldwide is generally higher for females than for their male counterparts.
The average girl born at the turn of the 20 th century in the United States could expect to live From tothe difference in life expectancy increased from 2. In the mid- to late s, the average gap in life expectancy approximated the average gap seen in developed countries today—roughly seven years.
Sincethe "female advantage" in life expectancy between the sexes in the United States has narrowed from 7.
A now dated, but still informative, study evaluated the contributions of various causes of death to the size of sex differentials in life expectancy in developed countries for the early s. In general, why is life expectancy longer for women? The answer, which is still being investigated, involves the complicated interplay of a host of biological, social, and behavioral conditions. In addition, it differs according to age and to the underlying disease and mortality profiles for men and women.
At birth, boys have a clear advantage. In the United States, One researcher has suggested that the male advantage at birth is moderated by higher male mortality to "ensure that the of men and women will be about the same at reproductive age. It has long been argued that hormones play a role in longevity. As described by Desjardins, 40 the female hormone estrogen helps to eliminate "bad" cholesterol LDL and thus may offer some protection against heart disease.
If a gene mutation occurs on one X, a woman's second X chromosome may be able to compensate. In comparison, genes on men's sole X chromosome may be expressed, even if they are deleterious without compensation. Stindl, 43 however, argues that these classic biological explanations do not withstand critical analysis. A larger body requires more cell doublings, especially due to the ongoing regeneration of tissues over a lifetime. Accordingly, the replicative history of male cells might be longer than that of female cells, resulting in the exhaustion of the regeneration potential and the early onset of age-associated diseases predominantly in males.
The underlying mechanism is the gradual erosion of chromosome ends telomeres. Two recent studies confirm that men do have shorter telomeres than women at the same ages.Average age of an american male
email: [email protected] - phone:(569) 733-7149 x 6998
Life expectancy of men in the United States